In the last two decades, climate change and global warming have harmed people and living things on earth noticeably. They have become alarming issues as well important agendas for the individuals and world leaders to discuss and find solutions to overcome these major problems. These problems result from increasing greenhouse gas especially Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission to the atmosphere. This emission is mostly from countries where there are a lot of industrial activities and manmade activities. Thus, a few important global conferences on climate change were initiated during the 1990s and the 2000s to prevent and alleviate greenhouse gas emission to the atmosphere. Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty, started in 1997 aims to decrease greenhouse gas emission by the UN member states by 2005. According to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn 2015 during Kyoto Protocol 10th Anniversary, these countries fail to achieve their goals. Thus, another commitment was agreed by many world leaders during Paris Agreement at the end of 2015 to deal with greenhouse gas emission by 2050. Base on Jotzo (2014), to overcome these negative impacts from climate change only if countries with high economic activities can decarbonise the increase in means surface temperature to 2 degree Celsius by 2050.
Australia is one of the countries where citizens rely heavily on CO2 to run their country. Therefore, it fell to achieve Kyoto protocol agenda. However, Australia has become one of the countries that has committed in reducing greenhouse gas especially CO2 emission in its country. To achieve this, it is required a big change in lifestyle or great changes in the economic structure in Australia. According to Jotzo (2014), Australia has developed and implemented solid plans including four pillars to achieve its goals. Firstly, energy efficiency to improve and strengthen quality of efficient in all sectors. Secondly, low carbon electricity by replacing with nuclear power and renewable energy. Thirdly, electrification and fuel replacement by using low carbon electricity and low energy carriers and carbon fossil fuel instead of high carbon electricity. Lastly, no-energy emission by improving equipment for farming and implementing carbon capture and storage. These plans can be achievable if the government, investors and individuals of Australia work collaboratively to implement and monitor them.