In the last two decades, climate change and global warming have harmed people and living things on earth noticeably. They have become alarming issues as well important agendas for the individuals and world leaders to discuss and find solutions to overcome these major problems. These problems result from increasing greenhouse gas especially Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission to the atmosphere. This emission is mostly from countries where there are a lot of industrial activities and manmade activities. Thus, a few important global conferences on climate change were initiated during the 1990s and the 2000s to prevent and alleviate greenhouse gas emission to the atmosphere.   Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty, started in 1997 aims to decrease greenhouse gas emission by the UN member states by 2005. According to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn 2015 during Kyoto Protocol 10th Anniversary, these countries fail to achieve their goals. Thus, another commitment was agreed by many world leaders during Paris Agreement at the end of 2015 to deal with greenhouse gas emission by 2050. Base on Jotzo (2014), to overcome these negative impacts from climate change only if countries with high economic activities can decarbonise the increase in means surface temperature to 2 degree Celsius by 2050.

Australia is one of the countries where citizens rely heavily on CO2 to run their country. Therefore, it fell to achieve Kyoto protocol agenda.  However, Australia has become one of the countries that has committed in reducing greenhouse gas especially CO2 emission in its country. To achieve this, it is required a big change in lifestyle or great changes in the economic structure in Australia. According to Jotzo (2014), Australia has developed and implemented solid plans including four pillars to achieve its goals. Firstly, energy efficiency to improve and strengthen quality of efficient in all sectors. Secondly, low carbon electricity by replacing with nuclear power and renewable energy. Thirdly, electrification and fuel replacement by using low carbon electricity and low energy carriers and carbon fossil fuel instead of high carbon electricity. Lastly, no-energy emission by improving equipment for farming and implementing carbon capture and storage. These plans can be achievable if the government, investors and individuals of Australia work collaboratively to implement and monitor them.



Resource Curse

Most people think that wealth from natural resources can bring peace, happiness and prosperity in their countries. Adequate natural resources also make countries rich in natural resources which leads to people being wealthier and happier. Adding to this, people in these countries can be prosperous without focusing much on economic activities as well as focusing on natural resources. However, some people think that it is not always true or always a blessing for these countries. It is sometimes a natural resource curse when governments fail to manage them properly, when governments of the countries which mostly depend on their plenty of natural resources like non-renewable resources such as minerals and fuels, and governments pay less attention to economic growth, democracy and the development of their countries. Thus, they end up with collapsing, compared to counties with less natural resources.  There are various kinds of curses such as economic curse which is known as the Dutch disease, political curse which focuses on the greed and injustice in the governments, environmental curse which makes the environment not sustainable, and socio-cultural curse is when countries strongly depend solely on natural resources.

Many countries with large natural resources like Venezuela, Nigeria and Chad, their governments are bankrupt because of several reasons. Firstly, governments are corrupt and abuse the power. There is no check and balance system to control their natural resources revenue.  Secondly, governments are weak in managing the revenue. They do not have a savings plan to make monetary growth for future generations because natural resources will not grow or will grow extremely slowly in the future. Besides that, governments spent money on the poor such as provide free housing rather than invest money on education and health care. Finally, governments enjoy receiving incomes from natural resources and pay less attention to invest in other sectors like agriculture.

Countries with rich natural resources can be blessed if their governments have a solid savings plan from natural resource revenue, and governments should invest more in other sectors rather than enjoy the incomes from natural resources, they should be accountable and transparent to their people. More than this, the citizens of countries should develop strategies to ensure that their governments release all resource revenue to the public.



Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) play significant roles to contribute to sustainable development through implementing a lot of activities such as promoting rights, social justice, and protecting environmental catastrophic. This can be seen NGOs shifts the power and the role of the governments because NGOs play more active roles than governments. Yet, some people think that NGOs are selfish groups that can’t represent people because of their self-serving interest. This becomes a controversial topic to discuss. That is why a question has been asked should NGOs be more controlled by the governments or should they be allowed greater freedom? From my point of view, NGOs should be allowed greater freedom because of three major reasons. The first reason is that NGOs are doing good things to help people without thinking about politics and benefits. They voluntarily work on building a good society which their impacts contribute or complement to governments’ work to reduce poverty. Secondly, NGOs enrich transparency and accountability through employing a democratic process to effectively empower and engage people from different levels especially at local level to solve community problems. They provide accessible service to serve the nations. They sometimes represent a vulnerable or marginalized groups to voice their concerns at the public sphere in order to find practical solutions and get responses from the governments. The last reason is that NGOs are bank of information for the governments to draft or develop a good policy which reflected the needs of people. NGOs work closely with people from local to national levels. Hence, the government should consider the constructive feedback from NGOs because a good policy can’t miss the inputs from them.

Based on the three reasons mentioned above, NGOs should be greater freedom. They are the important implementing partners with the governments to address people issues, to contribute ideas in developing and implementing policy agendas, and more importantly is to reduce poverty in the country.



Inclusive Youth Participation

I do believe that when youth participate actively in politics everyone will benefit. According to UNDP (2016), youth is a rich resource to achieve the implementation of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030. Also in the Rectangular Strategy III and National Youth Policy of Cambodian Youth Development of the Royal Government of Cambodia address youth as the backbone of country development. Youth has the biggest population compare to other age groups. So young women and men can drive changes in the next Commune Council and National Assembly Elections in 2017 and 2018 respectively, this result will be a priority topic for Cambodian development in the next 5 years. Therefore, youth should grab this golden opportunity to build their community and country better and better. All youth should go to register to vote as the deadline is approaching. It is on the 29th November 2016. So we have only 5 days left.  I am sure that the government already tries their best to disseminate this information through different means of communication to people. Yet, we are the citizens of the country also play important role to help with this process.

Some youth might not know what they can contribute to this election processes.

–  If they are interested and eligible to be voted, they can go to work with any political party that they like to work for because from my understanding in Cambodia, we can be voted only we are the members of political party.

–  Youth also can spread this information about registration or election to people who they think they can’t access this information.

–  Can contact NGOs or Association to learn more how they can contribute in these processes. They can contact COMFREL, YRDP, PDP,..etc.

–   Youth should learn more about the policy of each political party before they vote to select their representation.

–    Youth can also work as a group to score the commitment of political parties in different sectors in the next five years. This youth can score individually or can be a group. Do this, can help us to follow up the promises of our representation after they win the election.

– They should access and follow up the information in their country. And, they can do more than what I described here. For instance, being an observers during all processes.

For me personally, with my short term action plan is that I will provide a training on Civic Youth Engagement in Election Processes  after my mission with YSEALI  fellowship program. I will apply what I have learned from this program into this training.


Be Thankful to Challenges

In life we have never known what kind of people we will work with or we will meet. We might end up working with people with different personalities or interests, staying in a place that you have never thought of at all, eating food that you don’t really like. Yet, we must thankful for it. Let me share why I think so. It might be hard for you to believe in it when you don’t experience it.

An interesting points that I think it is really reflect my experience is that from my online learning with Dr. Deidre mentioned that be thankful to challenges we face. If we don’t face those challenges, we might not get chance to grow stronger.  So we really need a strong positive attitude that will bring us to succeed. Adding to that, this good attitude will make people around us happy. So every day for me is a journey that filled with new things to learn and discover. I am very blessed with what I have and I am very pleased with my work and my time here.  Living in this busy word is a bit tough, but finally, I have taken all advantages from this golden opportunity to learn and grow personally and professionally. Overcome those challenges make me so proud of myself. This kind of feeling is not easy to have. I can say this program really trains and empowers youth to be emerging and inclusive leader by letting them to explore more about my potential. Below is evidence on what Dr. Deidre’s lesson is true for me.

My friends called me an international traveler because of my work, so I don’t feel guilty to use this word in my text then 🙂I have worked with various groups of people from all walks of live. But I am still learning. I always feel that I don’t know and I need to learn more. It can be about places, people, transportation, foods and cultures. How do I manage to learn that? I give myself time. Importantly, be patient with myself and ready fight those challenges. I have known that short temper or panic will not help me to solve my challenges or I will not learn anything.  My teacher, my mom told me about being kind and patient to myself when I faced problem, but that time I was not really convinced until I learned more from Dr. Deidre and started to experiment here. Finally, I can feel and know what this really means to me.  So let’s start thinking positively and blessed with those challenges we have. img_0751

A Watkins Glen, Central of NY State


Reading and Exercising 

We read every day to feed our brain to be very healthy and we exercise to feed our body fit and energetic. Both are part of important attitude to have to live healthy. I enjoy walking after work and school. This evening I was walking around here. I feel fresh and happy :). I miss my folk who love doing exercise like me. ​